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programmable logic controller [Abk.: PLC ] [COMP.]. die PLC -Steuerung. programmable logic control [Abk.: PLC ] [COMP.]. programmierbare Steuerung. programmable logic control [Abk.: PLC ] [TECH.].
programmable logic control [Abk.: PLC ] [TECH.]. speicherprogrammierbare Steuerung [Abk.: SPS]. programmierbare Steuerung.
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Drive Controller. A primary reason for this is that PLCs solve the logic in a predictable and repeating sequence, and ladder logic allows the person writing the logic to see any issues with the timing of the logic sequence more easily than would be possible in other formats.
Up to the mids, PLCs were programmed using proprietary programming panels or special-purpose programming terminals , which often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLC programs.
Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were minimal due to a lack of memory capacity.
The oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory. PLCs require programming device which is used to develop and later download the created program into the memory of the controller.
There are two types of mechanical design for PLC systems. A single box , or a brick is a small programmable controller that fits all units and interfaces into one compact casing, although, typically, additional expansion modules for inputs and outputs are available.
Discrete digital signals can only take on or off value 1 or 0, true or false. Examples of devices providing a discrete signal include limit switches , photoelectric sensors and encoders.
For example, a controller might use 24 V DC input with values above 22 V DC representing o n , values below 2 V DC representing o ff , and intermediate values undefined.
Analog signals can use voltage or current that is proportional to the size of the monitored variable and can take any value within their scale.
Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. These are typically interpreted as integer values with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data.
The PLC will take this value and transpose it into the desired units of the process so the operator or program can read it.
Proper integration will also include filter times to reduce noise as well as high and low limits to report faults. Distance from the device and the controller is also a concern as the maximum traveling distance of a good quality V signal is very short compared to the mA signal.
The mA signal can also report if the wire is disconnected along the path as it would return a 0 mA signal. Some special processes need to work permanently with minimum unwanted downtime.
Therefore, it is necessary to design a system that is fault-tolerant and capable of handling the process with faulty modules.
Other redundancy scenarios could be related to safety-critical processes, for example, large hydraulic presses could require that both PLCs turn on an output before the press can come down in case one output does not turn off properly.
Programmable logic controllers are intended to be used by engineers without a programming background. For this reason, a graphical programming language called Ladder Diagram LD, LAD was first developed which resembles the schematic diagram of a system built with electromechanical relays.
It was adopted by many manufacturers and later standardized in the IEC control systems programming standard.
As of [update] , it is still widely used, thanks to its simplicity. Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.
PLC programs are typically written in programming device which can take the form of a desktop console, special software on a personal computer , or a handheld programming device.
It is stored either in non-volatile flash memory or battery-backed-up RAM. In some programmable controllers, the program is transferred from a personal computer to the PLC through a programming board that writes the program into a removable chip, such as EPROM.
A program written on a personal computer can be easily copied and backed up on external storage. Manufacturers develop programming software for their controllers.
In addition to being able to program PLCs in multiple languages, they provide common features like hardware diagnostics and maintenance, software debugging, and offline simulation.
The program can be uploaded for backup and restoration purposes. In order to properly understand the operation of a PLC, it is necessary to spend considerable time programming , testing and debugging PLC programs.
PLC systems are inherently expensive, and down-time is often very costly. In addition, if a PLC is programmed incorrectly it can result in lost productivity and dangerous conditions.
PLC simulation software such as PLCLogix can save time in the design of automated control applications and can also increase the level of safety associated with equipment since many "what if" scenarios can be tried and tested before the system is activated.
This is a programming example in ladder diagram which shows the control system. A ladder diagram is a method of drawing control circuits which pre-dates PLCs.
The ladder diagram resembles the schematic diagram of a system built with electromechanical relays.
As an example, say a facility needs to store water in a tank. The water is drawn from the tank by another system, as needed, and our example system must manage the water level in the tank by controlling the valve that refills the tank.
Shown are:. In a ladder diagram, the contact symbols represent the state of bits in processor memory, which corresponds to the state of physical inputs to the system.
If a discrete input is energized, the memory bit is a 1, and a "normally open" contact controlled by that bit will pass a logic "true" signal on to the next element of the ladder.
Therefore, the contacts in the PLC program that "read" or look at the physical switch contacts, in this case, must be "opposite" or open in order to return a TRUE for the closed physical switches.
Internal status bits, corresponding to the state of discrete outputs, are also available to the program. In the example, the physical state of the float switch contacts must be considered when choosing "normally open" or "normally closed" symbols in the ladder diagram.
Both float switches normally closed open their contacts when the water level in the tank is above the physical location of the switch.
When the water level is below both switches, the float switch physical contacts are both closed, and a true logic 1 value is passed to the Fill Valve output.
Water begins to fill the tank. The internal "Fill Valve" contact latches the circuit so that even when the "Low Level" contact opens as the water passes the lower switch , the fill valve remains on.
Since the High Level is also normally closed, water continues to flow as the water level remains between the two switch levels.
Once the water level rises enough so that the "High Level" switch is off opened , the PLC will shut the inlet to stop the water from overflowing; this is an example of seal-in latching logic.
The output is sealed in until a high-level condition breaks the circuit. After that, the fill valve remains off until the level drops so low that the low-level switch is activated, and the process repeats again.
A complete program may contain thousands of rungs, evaluated in sequence. A complete program scan may take only a few milliseconds, much faster than changes in the controlled process.
Programmable controllers vary in their capabilities for a "rung" of a ladder diagram. Some only allow a single output bit. There are typically limits to the number of series contacts in line, and the number of branches that can be used.
Each element of the rung is evaluated sequentially. If elements change their state during evaluation of a rung, hard-to-diagnose faults can be generated, although sometimes as above the technique is useful.
Some implementations forced evaluation from left-to-right as displayed and did not allow reverse flow of a logic signal in multi-branched rungs to affect the output.
PLC input can include simple digital elements such as limit switches , analog variables from process sensors such as temperature and pressure , and more complex data such as that from positioning or machine vision systems.
The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control, motion control, process control , distributed control systems , and networking.
The data handling, storage, processing power, and communication capabilities of some modern PLCs are approximately equivalent to desktop computers.
Desktop computer controllers have not been generally accepted in heavy industry because the desktop computers run on less stable operating systems than PLCs, and because the desktop computer hardware is typically not designed to the same levels of tolerance to temperature, humidity, vibration, and longevity as the processors used in PLCs.
Operating systems such as Windows do not lend themselves to deterministic logic execution, with the result that the controller may not always respond to changes of input status with the consistency in timing expected from PLCs.
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